Thermoluminescence dating of brazilian indigenous ceramics
(b) XRF spectra of the analyzed samples: a break was inserted in order to observe the variation of the elements; the color codes are the same as for Figure 6 a.This is the reason why the conservation of cultural heritage is of great concern.Still, stories of El Dorado — a grand and complex civilization in the jungle, the equal of the great Andean cities — have circulated since Europeans first arrived.One eighteenth-century Portuguese mercenary and gold-seeking wrote in his memoirs, kept in the manuscript department at the National Library of Brazil, how he had discovered, in the heart of the jungle, “a large, hidden, and very ancient city.” Such accounts have been assumed to be be untrue.Consequently, there have been numerous suggestions of a pre-European chicken introduction to the west coast of South America (3–5), in which both Asian and Polynesian contacts have been proposed (1, 4, 6). Polynesians introduced dogs, pigs, rats and chickens to many of the islands they settled (8).Here, we provide the first unequivocal evidence for a pre-European introduction of chickens to South America and indicate, through ancient DNA evidence, that the likely source of that introduction was Polynesia. Chicken remains first appear in Vanuatu and Tonga between 30 B.
When Roosevelt first laid eyes on the miner's artifacts at a makeshift museum in a rural hotel in the Amazon two years ago, she knew she had to get to the spot and look for signs of an ancient settlement.When Europeans first came to South America, they were awed by the grand civilizations of the Andes.The jungle, on the other hand, was for Europeans a place of dark and savage mystery, inhabited by primitive and ferocious warriors.Two interlocking assumptions about the Amazon have persisted to this day.The first is that the Amazon is a place of virgin wilderness, untouched by human cultivation or management; the second is that the people of the Amazon have always been — as they were found to be by twentieth-century anthropologists — small bands living by gathering, hunting, fishing, and slash-and-burn agriculture.